rpt angola2

Genocide Prevention Center
Angola Preliminary Report
Determination: Not Genocidal in
Summer 2001
Table of Contents

Background of the

General information on the history and background of the conflict in
Main Parties: MPLA,

Description of the origins and identity of the parties involved in the
Nature of Violence

Description of the nature of the violence committed including a listing
of civilian casualties.
Not Genocidal in Nature

An analysis of the situation in Angola with respect to the standards
of Genocide.
Works Cited

The Genocide Prevention Center publishes reports to highlight
strong indicators and dangers of potential genocide in remote areas. The
Angola report is an aberration because while there is a civil war, there
are no strong indicators of genocidal activity. It is useful, however, as
a tool to note how civil and human rights abuses and war crimes committed
during a civil conflict may still bear no ear markings of genocide.
Background of the Conflict
There has been a civil war raging in Angola since 1975. The
origins of the conflict can be traced to the 1960s when intellectuals organized
liberation movements to achieve independence from Portugal. The War of Independence
began on February 4, 1961 when the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation
of Angola) attacked the São Paulo fortress and police headquarters in Luanda.
The war spread throughout the country as two additional independence movements,
the FNLA (Frente Nacianal de Libertacao de Angola) and the UNITA (Uniao
Nacianal para a Independencia Total de Angola) fought in the north and south,
respectively. Following a prolonged armed struggle, Portugal conceded independence
to Angola on November 11, 1975.
Following the War of Independence, a civil war broke out between
the MPLA and the UNITA over control of the country and its abundant resources.
Angola became caught up in the Cold War as the United States and South Africa
supported the UNITA while the Soviet Union and Cuba supported the MPLA.
The MPLA founded the People’s Republic of Angola in Luanda while the UNITA
and FNLA founded the Popular Democratic Republic of Angola in Huambo.
During the 1970s and 80s, there was a low-intensity bush war.
The end of the Cold War had significant effect on the conflicting parties,
as the external actors stopped supporting the MPLA and the UNITA and engaged
in negotiating. After a series of meetings mediated by the US, Soviet Union,
and Portugal, a cease-fire was finally signed in 1991. The Estoril Peace
Accord between the government and UNITA governed ceasefire, mutual disarmament
and elections. Elections were held on September 29 and 30, 1992. The MPLA
gained a parliamentary majority but the presidential outcome was very close
between MPLA leader José Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi,
making a second round necessary. Despite the fact that the United Nations
observed the first round of elections and declared them “basically free
and fair”, Savimbi declared them to be fraudulent and left Luanda before
the second round of elections could take place. The fights resumed and between
April 1991 and May 1991 an estimated 100,000 to 350,000 people died in the
conflict. (www.oneworld. org/ globalwitness/reports/Angola)
Between late 1992 and 1994, the worst fighting took place
in Angola. In a period of 8 months 182,000 people died. By late 1993 the
UNITA gained control over 70% of the territory of Angola. (www.oneworld.org/
globalwitness/ reports/Angola) On November 20, 1994, the two sides signed
the internationally negotiated Lusaka Protocol. According to Human Rights
Watch, the Lusaka Protocol provided for a cease-fire, the integration of
UNITA generals into the government’s armed forces (which were to become
nonpartisan and civilian controlled), demobilization under U.N. supervision,
the repatriation of mercenaries, the incorporation of UNITA troops into
the Angolan National Police under the Interior Ministry, and the prohibition
of any outside police or surveillance organization.
After four years of uneasy peace Savimbi abandoned the peace
accord and the civil war resumed in 1998. Since 1998 localized guerilla
warfare has characterized the conflict. “Angola’s war, which resumed in
earnest in 1998, has claimed at least 500,000 lives and displaced some 4
million people out of the total population of 12 million”. (Mail and Guardian,
May 9, 2001) As of June 2001, “security conditions remain serious in the
provinces of Benguela, Bie, Huambo, Kuando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Malanje,
Moxico, and Uige. The security situation in these provinces is characterized
by ambushes, attacks, kidnappings, mine explosions, looting of civilian
goods, and threats against humanitarian workers and organizations.” ( U.S.
Agency for International Development, Bureau for Humanitarian Response Office
of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance)
Main Parties
Main Actors:
The civil war in Angola is fueled by a power struggle between
the government MPLA and the UNITA
1) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimento
Popular de Libertaçao de Angola – MPLA) led by José Eduardo dos Santos,
the current president of the state.
The MPLA, a Marxist party, was founded by Africans and mixed-race
mesticos in 1956 and had a strong following in the Angolan capital among
the Creole population. This was to be crucial in the MPLA’s seizure of power
in 1975. The MPLA was at first led by Antonio Neto and, after his death,
by Eduardo dos Santos.
2) Union for the Total Independence of Angola (Uniao Nacional
para a Independencia Total de Angola – UNITA) led by Jonas Savimbi.
The UNITA was formed in 1966 by Jonas Savimbi. The UNITA is
supported by illiterate peasants and emphasizes ethnic (Ovimbundo) and rural
rights in contrast with the urbanized Marxism of the MPLA. The UNITA was
also considered to be ‘Maoist’ in the sense that Savimbi used Mao’s techniques
to fight a guerrilla war.
Other Actors:
1) National Front for the Liberation of Angola (Frente Nacional
de Libertacao de Angola- FNLA)
The FNLA was formed in 1957 by Holden Roberto and a group
of Bakongo nationalists. It was predominantly a northern-based party, with
an ethnic base among the Bakongo people. The FNLA formed an alliance with
the UNITA, announcing the formation of the Democratic Republic of Angola.
2) Unita Renovada led by Eugenio Manuvakola

3) Platform for Understanding led by Abel Chivukuvuku

4) Frente para a Libertacao do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC)

5) Angolan Party for Democratic Support (PADPA)
Nature of Violence
Frequent Civilian Casualties
The 25-year Angolan civil war has caused the death
of numerous civilians. The US. Committee for Refugees estimates that 1 million
people have been killed since the mid-1970s. (USAID, Complex Emergency Situation
Report) Civilians have died as a result of indiscriminate shelling and both
arbitrary and deliberate killings. Human Rights Watch argues that the UNITA
has been primarily responsible for civilian casualties, whereas Amnesty
International maintains that both the government and UNITA have carried
out atrocities.
Since the resumption of fighting in 1998, the
war has been reported to take “a heavy toll on the civilian population.”
(Amnesty International 2000 World Report) In concert with this statement,
Edwin Van Der Borght, of Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders)
reports: “And if you speak to the people … they will tell you that the
conflict has never been so violent against them as over the past two years.”
(CNN, April 6 2001) Hence, the Genocide Prevention Center decided to examine
the present state of the Angolan civil war and determine whether the atrocities
committed against civilians are of a genocidal nature.
The following are examples of civilian casualties
during the civil war due largely to warfare. These do not bear strong indicators
of genocide.
Casualties in 2001
Place: Benguela
Date: March 14, 2001
Victims: 7
Seven people were killed and six wounded during
an attack by the UNITA on the outskirts of the city Benguela. The report
did not mention if the casualties constituted civilians or soldiers.(IRIN,
Wednesday 14 March, 2001)
Place: Calomboloca
Date: March 16, 2001
Victims: 16
At least sixteen people were killed when the UNITA
attacked the town of Calomboloca, about 80 km from Luanda. According to
the report, a number of rebels died among civilians in the fighting. (IRIN,
Friday 16 March, 2001)
Place: Caxito
Date: May 5, 2001
Victims: over 100
UNITA forces attacked the town of Caxito, near
Luanda, killing over 100 people and kidnapping 60 children, who were later
released. The report did not specify if the victims were all civilians or
soldiers. (IRIN, Friday 11 May, 2001)
Place: Namibian border
Date: May 11, 2001
Victims: 1
UNITA rebels attacked an Angolan military base
near the Namibian border. As a result, one civilian was killed and two government
soldiers injured. (IRIN, Friday 11 May, 2001)
Place: Cacuso
Date: May 15, 2001
Victims: 20
20 civilians were killed and 12 were injured on
Friday in an ambush near the northern town of Cacuso during a UNITA attack.
(IRIN , Tuesday 15 May, 2001)
Place: Golungo Alto
Date: May 22, 2001
Victims: Unknown
The UNITA attacked the town of Golungo Alto, which
triggered a stream of refugees. (BBC, Tuesday 22 May 2001)
Place: Catala
Date: June 11, 2001
Victims: 22
22 civilians were killed and 17 injured when
their vehicle ran over an anti-tank mine, which exploded near Catala in
Angola’s northern Malanje province.(IRIN, Monday 11 June, 2001)
Place: Buengas, Buenga Sul, Cuilo Cambozo, Malanje,
Cuanze Sul, Huambo
Date: June 19, 2001
Victims: unknown
UNITA forces captured several towns – Buengas,
Buenga Sul, Cuilo Camobzo – and attacked the northern provinces of Bengo,
Malanje, Cuanze Sul and Huambo. (IRIN, Tuesday 19 June, 2001)
Place: Uige
Date: June 26, 2001
Victims: 34 injured
The UNITA attacked the provincial capital of
Uige and injured 34 people during a five-hour gun battle with government
troops. The report did not clarify if the victims were civilians or soldiers.
(BBC, Tuesday 26 June, 2001)
Place: Malanje
Date: June 29, 2001
Victims: 12
UNITA rebels killed 12 civilians and injured 10
others in an attack on a supply convoy near the city of Malanje, east of
the capital Luanda. (IRIN, Friday 29 June, 2001)
Place: near Jungo
Date: July 12, 2001
Victims: 11
A commercial truck was attacked near Jungo, which
resulted in the death of 11 civilians. (UN Office for the Coordination of
Humanitarian Affairs, July 25, 2001)
Place: between Ukua and Quibaxe
Date: July 12, 2001
Victims: 6
Armed groups attacked another commercial vehicle
20 km from Ukua in the direction of Quibaxe, killing six civilians. (UN
Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, July 25, 2001)
Place: between Caluquembe and Matala and Quibaxe
Date: July 16, 2001
Victims: 3
During an ambush on the road between Chipipa and
Bailundo three civilians were killed and five wounded. (UN Office for the
Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, July 25, 2001)
Place: Chinguvu
Date: July 17, 2001
Victims: 70
According to IRIN, 70 civilians were killed and
15 wounded in an armed attack in the diamond-mining town of Chinguvu. The
attackers were identified as members of the UNITA. (IRIN, Tuesday July 17,
Additional Human Rights Violations Present
in the Civil War
Forcible recruitments of adults and children
According to the Amnesty International 2000 Report,
the UNITA continued its forced recruitment of children and adults. The UNITA
reportedly kidnapped 8 tribal chiefs from Quimozengou and Quichiona because
they failed to recruit soldiers for the rebels. Human Rights Watch reported
that the UNITA abducted 80 children from Mbanza Congo in order to train
them as soldiers. (Human Rights Watch Report, 2001)
Deliberate mutilation
Although deliberate mutilations have not been
widespread, the number of incidents has increased during 2001. (Human Rights
Watch Report, 2001) It is hard to confirm the identity of the perpetrators,
however UNITA allegedly has been responsible for cutting off ears and hands.
Amnesty International reported that in March 2000, UNITA members mutilated
the ears, arms and legs of 12 independent miners in Tchinguvo, Lunda Norte
province, and murdered 40 others. (Amnesty International, Human Rights Abuses
with Small Arms) “Accounts of torture were not commonplace but were sufficient
to suggest that the rebels used torture to attempt to extract information,
especially from individuals thought to have military knowledge about the
government’s intentions.” (Human Rights Watch World Report, 2001)
Landmine victims
Although the Angolan government advocated the
international landmine treaty it has never ratified it. The BBC reported
that Angola was at greater risk than ever as both the government and UNITA
engaged in deploying landmines early this year. (BBC, May 3 2001) There
are different estimates regarding the number of landmines and amputees.
According to John Prendergast, Angola has an estimated 10 million land mines
and up to 100,000 amputees. (Prendergast, Angola’s Deadly War: Dealing with
Savimbi’s Hell on Earth) The UN estimated the number of landmines to be
7 million.(BBC, May 6, 2000) The presence of landmine victims in Angola
is very striking as David Shukman observed “..during the next 10 minutes
I saw no fewer than nine disabled people. Nearly one a minute, on an ordinary
street on a typical weekday morning. No wonder the total number of landmine
victims in Angola is unknown – it’s beyond counting.” (BBC, May 6 2000)
As a consequence of resumed fighting, waves of
refugees were fleeing Angola in 2001. UNITA rebel attacks in Uige province
have driven as many as 7,400 people into the neighboring Democratic Republic
of the Congo. (IRIN, March 5 2001) Between 60 and 70 Angolan refugees were
entering Zambia every day through the border town of Mwinilunga. (IRIN,
April 19 2001).
As of May 2001, the United Nations High Commissioner
for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 430,781 Angolans were refugees in other
countries. (USAID Angola – Complex Emergency Situation Report )
  Zambia: 199,086
Democratic Republic of the Congo: 179,550
Republic of Congo 18,515
Namibia 28,889
South Africa 3,902
in other countries 839
Internally displaced people
Continued warfare forced Angolans to flee from
their homes and set up residence in IDP camps. At present, it is impossible
to estimate accurately the number of IDPs. The US Committee for Refugees
reported that the number of internally displaced Angolans ranged from 1
million to 3.5 million people. (USCR: Country Report) According to Amnesty
International and Human Rights Watch, the number of internally displaced
persons grew to an estimated 2.5 million, approximately 20 percent of the
total population of Angola.
In 2001, ongoing military activity has led to
displacements from the areas of Cambandua, Chicala, Nhareia, Camacupa and
Kuninga (Belo Horizonte) into the provincial capital, Kuito. As a result,
an additional 15,500 displaced families arrived from December to February
in Kuito.(IRIN, March 7 2001)
Targeting humanitarian assistance
The UNITA has been reportedly targeting humanitarian
assistance in Angola. On April 30, 2000 a U.N. World Food Program convoy
was attacked 85 kilometers from Lobito. On August 9, 2000 the U.N. denounced
an armed attack on Catete that resulted in the deaths of a humanitarian
worker and three other civilians. (Human Rights Watch, World Report, 2000)
Assaults against humanitarian assistance continued
in 2001. In the middle of June 2001, the UN warned that humanitarian operation
in Angola were at risk. The UN food agency cancelled humanitarian flights
to Angola after its aircraft was attacked by UNITA missiles in early June.
The spokesman for UNITA, Joffre Justino, initially maintained that ” the
planes were legitimate targets,” but later said it ” was not deliberately
targeting humanitarian flights”. Despite a lack of safety guarantees for
its planes, the UN has since resumed its flights in order to avoid a humanitarian
catastrophe. The UN food agency helps about one million people in Angola
whose lives would be endangered without food aid. (BBC, June 21, 2001)
Violation of the Freedom of the Press
Violation of the freedom of the press has been
characteristic in Angola. The government passed a law in August 1999 that
advocates harsh punishment for defamation. In consequence the government
has repeatedly threatened independent journalists criticizing the MPLA.
Isaias Soares, correspondent of Voice of America (VoA) and the independent
Catholic radio station ‘Radio Ecclesia’ in the northern Malange province
was attacked by two men on February 22 at his home. Soares was not injured
in the assault. Soares has been harassed on several occasions for his critical
writings. In 1999, he was arrested after he denounced the security forces’
practices. In 2000, local authorities in Malange forbade the journalist
access to official buildings. (IRIN, February 28, 2001)
The latest reported incident occurred on July
14, when Rafael Marques was arrested by police in Luanda while visiting
people who had been forcibly removed from their homes. Marques has argued
that media freedom has deteriorated, citing examples of government pressure
on the Catholic radio station ‘Radio Ecclesia’ and interrogations of journalists
who denounce the government. (CNN, July 14, 2001)
Not Genocidal in Nature
This preliminary research focused on possible
precursors of genocide present in the region due to the civil war in Angola.
The Genocide Prevention Center has defined four standards that must be met
for human rights abuses and violence to constitute genocide:
  1. The Center recognizes the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and
    Punishment of the Crime of Genocide definition of genocide, Article
  2. The GPC must determine that the occurrence of massacres of unarmed
    civilian groups is habitual
  3. The Center must determine that the crimes are intentional
  4. Numerous and repeated acts of murder of a UN-recognized group must
    be the primary characteristic of the abuse
In concert with the first criteria, the Genocide
Prevention Center acknowledges the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention
and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as key to identifying genocide.
The UN Convention Article II classifies genocide as intentional actions
aimed at destroying “in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or
religious group.”
The civil war in Angola is a struggle for control
and power between the government MPLA and the UNITA. Although both parties
are supported by different ethnic groups (the MPLA by Africans and mixed
race mesticos and the UNITA by the peasants and ethnic Ovimbundo population),
ethnicity has never been of significance in the war. Civilians have not
been targeted due to their national, ethnical, racial or religious beliefs.
Hence, the Angolan civil war does not meet this portion of the UN definition
of genocide and does not meet the first standard.
According to Article 2 (e) of the 1948 UN Convention
on Genocide, “Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group”
is a genocidal act. This is taking place in Angola, as we have mentioned
in the section above entitled “Forcible Recruitments of Adults and Children”.
Although the forced transfer of children does meet a portion of Article
2 from the UN Convention, the Genocide Prevention Center does not utilize
this as a criteria for genocide as it does not share the characteristic
of murder.
In order to meet the second standard for genocide,
the killings in Angola must be shown to be habitual. In looking at the recent
violence within the country, it is possible to make a case that the killing
of civilians is in fact habitual, as there have been numerous cases in which
civilians have lost their lives in the conflict. Examples include 16 killed
in Calomboloca on March 16, 2001; 20 killed in Cacuso on May 15, 2001; 22
killed in Catala on July 11, 2001; and 70 killed in Chinguvu on July 17,
2001. However, a distinction must be made between the specific targeting
of civilians and incidental civilian wartime casualties. In the case of
incidental casualties, civilian deaths result primarily as an effect of
the overall warfare and not due to the specific targeting and exterminating
of the population. It is clear that in the case of Angola, the civilian
victims are incidental casualties and not the primary targets of the violence.
These killings do constitute war crimes, however, they are not genocidal
in nature. Therefore, the violence and killing in Angola do not meet the
second standard for genocide.
The third standard involves the intent behind
the killings. The Genocide Prevention Center distinguishes between massive
human rights abuses that have an aspect of manslaughter versus those that
have an aspect of murder. In a case of murder, the action is considered
to be intentional while in the case of manslaughter, the killing of civilians
is a bi-product of warfare and is not the intended goal. Directly related
to the above analysis of the second standard, the case of Angola does not
involve the intentional targeting and extermination of the civilian population.
Massacres are primarily incidental civilian wartime casualties, and therefore
are more closely associated with manslaughter then they are with murder.
Because there is no strong indication that the killing of civilians in Angola
is intentional, it therefore does not meet the third standard for genocide.
According to the fourth criteria the primary characteristic
of the human rights violations must be the killing of civilians. Again,
this is not the case in Angola. Angola has been suffering from two decades
of civil war in which large numbers of civilians have been killed. However,
the killing of civilians is not the primary characteristic of the violence.
The primary characteristic of the conflict is warfare, with famine and incidental
wartime casualties existing as secondary characteristics. The case of Angola
is one of a civil war in which the two main sides are fighting over territory,
not targeting the population for extermination. Because the killing of civilians
is not the primary characteristic of the war in Angola, this case does not
meet the fourth standard for genocide.
In conclusion, the Genocide Prevention Center
has determined that the pattern of violence in Angola does not meet the
four standards for genocide. Nevertheless, based on reports published in
2001, the UNITA is responsible for committing both war crimes and crimes
against humanity. It is difficult to make a judgment on the actions of the
government, as there is a lack of evidence on the nature of the violence
it has committed. It is possible that the strict control the government
has over the media has been responsible for this lack of information. However,
as cited earlier in the report, Amnesty International has stated that both
the UNITA and government MPLA have been responsible for actions against
In concert with the reported casualties, we can
only conclude that it appears the atrocities committed against civilians
this year have been inflicted by the UNITA. Based on the evidence, the UNITA
has violated Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949,
and Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.
According to Article 3, “the following acts are
and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place…: (a) Violence
to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel
treatment and torture; (b) Taking of hostages; (www.unhchr.ch)
According to Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International
and numerous news articles cited in this report, the UNITA is responsible
for committing murder, mutilation, and kidnapping, hence violating Article
3 a and b.
The UNITA has violated Part Two, Article 4, 3c
of Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 which
states ” children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall neither
be recruited in the armed forces or groups nor allowed to take part in hostilities.”
Further, the UNITA is responsible for violating
Part Four, Article 13, 2 of Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions
of 12 August 1949 which says: ” The civilian population as such, as well
as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats
of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian
population are prohibited.” (www.unhcr.ch)
Although the Genocide Prevention Center concludes
that the Angolan civil war does not constitute genocide, the civil war does
constitute the above mentioned war crimes. Therefore, the abuses in Angola
require further attention and action to bring about an end to the violence.
     History of the
Civil War
  • 1961-1975 War of Independence, Angolans wage guerilla war for independence
  • 1975 Portugal grants independence
  • 1975-1991 War of the Bush, Civil war among two rival groups
  • 1976 Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) organizes
    Marxist state
  • 1992-1994 War of the Cities
  • 1994 Government and UNITA sign peace treaty (Lusaka Protocol)
  • 1998 Peace Protocol fails, civil war restarts
Works Cited
Amnesty International Report 2001: Angola
Annan, Kofi: S/1998/1110 REPORT to the Security
Council on the United Nations
Mission on Angola (MONUA)
Angola: A Brief Outline
Angola Peace Monitor: Issue No.10, Vol.VII, 4
July 2001
Angola Peace Monitor: Issue No.9, Vol.VII, 7 June
CIA The World Fact Book: Angola
GBGM: Angola: General Information and History
Human Rights Watch World Report 2000: Angola
Library of Congress: Angola, a country study
Prendergast, John: Angola’s Deadly War:Dealing
with Savimbi’sHell on Earth
UNCHR Country Profile, Angola
U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau
for Humanitarian Response
(BHR) Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance

Angola: Complex Emergency , Situation Report #2, Fiscal Year(FY) 2001 July
US Committee for Refugees: Worldwide Refugee Information,
Country Report:
Angola, http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/africa/angola.htm
Online News Resources
BBC:”Angola aid flights resume.” June 21, 2001.

CNN:”Ongoing war a grim reality in Angola.” April
6, 2001.

Guardian and Mail:”Angola.” May 9, 2001

IRIN:”ANGOLA: Journalist assaulted in Malange
province.” February 28, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010228b.phtml

IRIN:”ANGOLA: Town’s population ‘missing’.” March 7, 2001.


IRIN: “ANGOLA: UNITA attack on Benguela.” March 14, 2001.


IRIN:”ANGOLA: Angolan rebels attack strategic town.” March 16 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010316a.phtml

IRIN:”ANGOLA-ZAMBIA: More Angolan refugees arrive in Zambia.” April 19,
2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010419.phtml

IRIN:” ANGOLA: Angolan children recount raid.” May 11, 2001.


IRIN:”ANGOLA: UNITA attacks military base near Namibian border.” May 11,
2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010511b.phtml

IRIN:”ANGOLA: 20 dead in ambush by Angolan rebels.” May 15, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010515.phtml

IRIN: “ANGOLA: Landmine kills 22. ” June, 11, 2001.


IRIN:”ANGOLA: Government, UNITA claim victories as president calls for tougher
action.” June 19, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010619a.phtml

IRIN:”ANGOLA: Twelve killed in rebel attack.” June 29, 2001.


IRIN: “ANGOLA: Attack on diamond town.” July 17, 2001.


Pearce, Justin: “UNITA attack east of Luanda.” May 22, 2001.BBC


Pearce, Justin: “Angola rebels attack Uige.” June 26, 2001. BBC


Shukman, David:”Deadly landmine threat stalks Angola.” May 3, 2001. BBC

Shukman, David: “Victims of Angola’s landmines.” May 6, 2001.BBC


UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Humanitarian situation

Angola: Reporting period 09 – 15 Jul 2001, July 25 2001.

Law articles
Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions of
12 August 1949, and Protocol

Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.


Copyright The Genocide Prevention Center 2001