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Country Reports: Angola

 

ANGOLA PRELIMINARY REPORT

DETERMINATION: NOT GENOCIDAL IN NATURE

SUMMER 2001
 

Page
Section
2 Introduction
2 Background of the Conflict
General information on the history and background of the conflict in Angola
4 Main Parties: MPLA, UNITA, FNLA
Description of the origins and identity of the parties involved in the conflict
5 Nature of Violence
Description of the nature of the violence committed including a listing of civilian casualties.
12 Not Genocidal in Nature
An analysis of the situation in Angola with respect to the standards of Genocide.
14 Conlusion
16 Appendix
16 Works Cited

Introduction

The Genocide Prevention Center publishes reports to highlight strong indicators and dangers of potential genocide in remote areas. The Angola report is an aberration because while there is a civil war, there are no strong indicators of genocidal activity. It is useful, however, as a tool to note how civil and human rights abuses and war crimes committed during a civil conflict may still bear no ear markings of genocide.

Background of the Conflict

There has been a civil war raging in Angola since 1975. The origins of the conflict can be traced to the 1960s when intellectuals organized liberation movements to achieve independence from Portugal. The War of Independence began on February 4, 1961 when the MPLA (Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola) attacked the São Paulo fortress and police headquarters in Luanda. The war spread throughout the country as two additional independence movements, the FNLA (Frente Nacianal de Libertacao de Angola) and the UNITA (Uniao Nacianal para a Independencia Total de Angola) fought in the north and south, respectively. Following a prolonged armed struggle, Portugal conceded independence to Angola on November 11, 1975.

Following the War of Independence, a civil war broke out between the MPLA and the UNITA over control of the country and its abundant resources. Angola became caught up in the Cold War as the United States and South Africa supported the UNITA while the Soviet Union and Cuba supported the MPLA. The MPLA founded the People’s Republic of Angola in Luanda while the UNITA and FNLA founded the Popular Democratic Republic of Angola in Huambo.

During the 1970s and 80s, there was a low-intensity bush war. The end of the Cold War had significant effect on the conflicting parties, as the external actors stopped supporting the MPLA and the UNITA and engaged in negotiating. After a series of meetings mediated by the US, Soviet Union, and Portugal, a cease-fire was finally signed in 1991. The Estoril Peace Accord between the government and UNITA governed ceasefire, mutual disarmament and elections. Elections were held on September 29 and 30, 1992. The MPLA gained a parliamentary majority but the presidential outcome was very close between MPLA leader José Eduardo dos Santos and UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi, making a second round necessary. Despite the fact that the United Nations observed the first round of elections and declared them "basically free and fair", Savimbi declared them to be fraudulent and left Luanda before the second round of elections could take place. The fights resumed and between April 1991 and May 1991 an estimated 100,000 to 350,000 people died in the conflict. (www.oneworld. org/ globalwitness/reports/Angola)

Between late 1992 and 1994, the worst fighting took place in Angola. In a period of 8 months 182,000 people died. By late 1993 the UNITA gained control over 70% of the territory of Angola. (www.oneworld.org/ globalwitness/ reports/Angola) On November 20, 1994, the two sides signed the internationally negotiated Lusaka Protocol. According to Human Rights Watch, the Lusaka Protocol provided for a cease-fire, the integration of UNITA generals into the government’s armed forces (which were to become nonpartisan and civilian controlled), demobilization under U.N. supervision, the repatriation of mercenaries, the incorporation of UNITA troops into the Angolan National Police under the Interior Ministry, and the prohibition of any outside police or surveillance organization.

After four years of uneasy peace Savimbi abandoned the peace accord and the civil war resumed in 1998. Since 1998 localized guerilla warfare has characterized the conflict. "Angola’s war, which resumed in earnest in 1998, has claimed at least 500,000 lives and displaced some 4 million people out of the total population of 12 million". (Mail and Guardian, May 9, 2001) As of June 2001, "security conditions remain serious in the provinces of Benguela, Bie, Huambo, Kuando Kubango, Kwanza Norte, Malanje, Moxico, and Uige. The security situation in these provinces is characterized by ambushes, attacks, kidnappings, mine explosions, looting of civilian goods, and threats against humanitarian workers and organizations." ( U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Humanitarian Response Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance)

Main Parties

Main Actors:

The civil war in Angola is fueled by a power struggle between the government MPLA and the UNITA

1) Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimento Popular de Libertaçao de Angola – MPLA) led by José Eduardo dos Santos, the current president of the state.
The MPLA, a Marxist party, was founded by Africans and mixed-race mesticos in 1956 and had a strong following in the Angolan capital among the Creole population. This was to be crucial in the MPLA’s seizure of power in 1975. The MPLA was at first led by Antonio Neto and, after his death, by Eduardo dos Santos.

2) Union for the Total Independence of Angola (Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola – UNITA) led by Jonas Savimbi.
The UNITA was formed in 1966 by Jonas Savimbi. The UNITA is supported by illiterate peasants and emphasizes ethnic (Ovimbundo) and rural rights in contrast with the urbanized Marxism of the MPLA. The UNITA was also considered to be ‘Maoist’ in the sense that Savimbi used Mao’s techniques to fight a guerrilla war.

Other Actors:

1) National Front for the Liberation of Angola (Frente Nacional de Libertacao de Angola- FNLA)
The FNLA was formed in 1957 by Holden Roberto and a group of Bakongo nationalists. It was predominantly a northern-based party, with an ethnic base among the Bakongo people. The FNLA formed an alliance with the UNITA, announcing the formation of the Democratic Republic of Angola.

2) Unita Renovada led by Eugenio Manuvakola
3) Platform for Understanding led by Abel Chivukuvuku
4) Frente para a Libertacao do Enclave de Cabinda (FLEC)
5) Angolan Party for Democratic Support (PADPA)

Nature of Violence

Frequent Civilian Casualties

The 25-year Angolan civil war has caused the death of numerous civilians. The US. Committee for Refugees estimates that 1 million people have been killed since the mid-1970s. (USAID, Complex Emergency Situation Report) Civilians have died as a result of indiscriminate shelling and both arbitrary and deliberate killings. Human Rights Watch argues that the UNITA has been primarily responsible for civilian casualties, whereas Amnesty International maintains that both the government and UNITA have carried out atrocities.

Since the resumption of fighting in 1998, the war has been reported to take "a heavy toll on the civilian population." (Amnesty International 2000 World Report) In concert with this statement, Edwin Van Der Borght, of Medecins Sans Frontieres (Doctors Without Borders) reports: "And if you speak to the people … they will tell you that the conflict has never been so violent against them as over the past two years." (CNN, April 6 2001) Hence, the Genocide Prevention Center decided to examine the present state of the Angolan civil war and determine whether the atrocities committed against civilians are of a genocidal nature.

The following are examples of civilian casualties during the civil war due largely to warfare. These do not bear strong indicators of genocide.

Casualties in 2001
Place: Benguela
Date: March 14, 2001
Victims: 7

Seven people were killed and six wounded during an attack by the UNITA on the outskirts of the city Benguela. The report did not mention if the casualties constituted civilians or soldiers.(IRIN, Wednesday 14 March, 2001)

Place: Calomboloca
Date: March 16, 2001
Victims: 16

At least sixteen people were killed when the UNITA attacked the town of Calomboloca, about 80 km from Luanda. According to the report, a number of rebels died among civilians in the fighting. (IRIN, Friday 16 March, 2001)

Place: Caxito
Date: May 5, 2001
Victims: over 100

UNITA forces attacked the town of Caxito, near Luanda, killing over 100 people and kidnapping 60 children, who were later released. The report did not specify if the victims were all civilians or soldiers. (IRIN, Friday 11 May, 2001)

Place: Namibian border
Date: May 11, 2001
Victims: 1

UNITA rebels attacked an Angolan military base near the Namibian border. As a result, one civilian was killed and two government soldiers injured. (IRIN, Friday 11 May, 2001)

Place: Cacuso
Date: May 15, 2001
Victims: 20

20 civilians were killed and 12 were injured on Friday in an ambush near the northern town of Cacuso during a UNITA attack. (IRIN , Tuesday 15 May, 2001)

Place: Golungo Alto
Date: May 22, 2001
Victims: Unknown

The UNITA attacked the town of Golungo Alto, which triggered a stream of refugees. (BBC, Tuesday 22 May 2001)

Place: Catala
Date: June 11, 2001
Victims: 22

22 civilians were killed and 17 injured when their vehicle ran over an anti-tank mine, which exploded near Catala in Angola’s northern Malanje province.(IRIN, Monday 11 June, 2001)

Place: Buengas, Buenga Sul, Cuilo Cambozo, Malanje, Cuanze Sul, Huambo
Date: June 19, 2001
Victims: unknown

UNITA forces captured several towns – Buengas, Buenga Sul, Cuilo Camobzo – and attacked the northern provinces of Bengo, Malanje, Cuanze Sul and Huambo. (IRIN, Tuesday 19 June, 2001)

Place: Uige
Date: June 26, 2001
Victims: 34 injured

The UNITA attacked the provincial capital of Uige and injured 34 people during a five-hour gun battle with government troops. The report did not clarify if the victims were civilians or soldiers. (BBC, Tuesday 26 June, 2001)

Place: Malanje
Date: June 29, 2001
Victims: 12

UNITA rebels killed 12 civilians and injured 10 others in an attack on a supply convoy near the city of Malanje, east of the capital Luanda. (IRIN, Friday 29 June, 2001)

Place: near Jungo
Date: July 12, 2001
Victims: 11

A commercial truck was attacked near Jungo, which resulted in the death of 11 civilians. (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, July 25, 2001)

Place: between Ukua and Quibaxe
Date: July 12, 2001
Victims: 6

Armed groups attacked another commercial vehicle 20 km from Ukua in the direction of Quibaxe, killing six civilians. (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, July 25, 2001)

Place: between Caluquembe and Matala and Quibaxe
Date: July 16, 2001
Victims: 3

During an ambush on the road between Chipipa and Bailundo three civilians were killed and five wounded. (UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, July 25, 2001)

Place: Chinguvu
Date: July 17, 2001
Victims: 70

According to IRIN, 70 civilians were killed and 15 wounded in an armed attack in the diamond-mining town of Chinguvu. The attackers were identified as members of the UNITA. (IRIN, Tuesday July 17, 2001)

Additional Human Rights Violations Present in the Civil War

Forcible recruitments of adults and children

According to the Amnesty International 2000 Report, the UNITA continued its forced recruitment of children and adults. The UNITA reportedly kidnapped 8 tribal chiefs from Quimozengou and Quichiona because they failed to recruit soldiers for the rebels. Human Rights Watch reported that the UNITA abducted 80 children from Mbanza Congo in order to train them as soldiers. (Human Rights Watch Report, 2001)

Deliberate mutilation

Although deliberate mutilations have not been widespread, the number of incidents has increased during 2001. (Human Rights Watch Report, 2001) It is hard to confirm the identity of the perpetrators, however UNITA allegedly has been responsible for cutting off ears and hands. Amnesty International reported that in March 2000, UNITA members mutilated the ears, arms and legs of 12 independent miners in Tchinguvo, Lunda Norte province, and murdered 40 others. (Amnesty International, Human Rights Abuses with Small Arms) "Accounts of torture were not commonplace but were sufficient to suggest that the rebels used torture to attempt to extract information, especially from individuals thought to have military knowledge about the government’s intentions." (Human Rights Watch World Report, 2001)

Landmine victims

Although the Angolan government advocated the international landmine treaty it has never ratified it. The BBC reported that Angola was at greater risk than ever as both the government and UNITA engaged in deploying landmines early this year. (BBC, May 3 2001) There are different estimates regarding the number of landmines and amputees. According to John Prendergast, Angola has an estimated 10 million land mines and up to 100,000 amputees. (Prendergast, Angola’s Deadly War: Dealing with Savimbi’s Hell on Earth) The UN estimated the number of landmines to be 7 million.(BBC, May 6, 2000) The presence of landmine victims in Angola is very striking as David Shukman observed "..during the next 10 minutes I saw no fewer than nine disabled people. Nearly one a minute, on an ordinary street on a typical weekday morning. No wonder the total number of landmine victims in Angola is unknown – it’s beyond counting." (BBC, May 6 2000)

Refugees

As a consequence of resumed fighting, waves of refugees were fleeing Angola in 2001. UNITA rebel attacks in Uige province have driven as many as 7,400 people into the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo. (IRIN, March 5 2001) Between 60 and 70 Angolan refugees were entering Zambia every day through the border town of Mwinilunga. (IRIN, April 19 2001).

As of May 2001, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) reported that 430,781 Angolans were refugees in other countries. (USAID Angola – Complex Emergency Situation Report )

Zambia: 199,086
Democratic Republic of the Congo: 179,550
Republic of Congo 18,515
Namibia 28,889
South Africa 3,902
in other countries 839

Internally displaced people

Continued warfare forced Angolans to flee from their homes and set up residence in IDP camps. At present, it is impossible to estimate accurately the number of IDPs. The US Committee for Refugees reported that the number of internally displaced Angolans ranged from 1 million to 3.5 million people. (USCR: Country Report) According to Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, the number of internally displaced persons grew to an estimated 2.5 million, approximately 20 percent of the total population of Angola.

In 2001, ongoing military activity has led to displacements from the areas of Cambandua, Chicala, Nhareia, Camacupa and Kuninga (Belo Horizonte) into the provincial capital, Kuito. As a result, an additional 15,500 displaced families arrived from December to February in Kuito.(IRIN, March 7 2001)

Targeting humanitarian assistance

The UNITA has been reportedly targeting humanitarian assistance in Angola. On April 30, 2000 a U.N. World Food Program convoy was attacked 85 kilometers from Lobito. On August 9, 2000 the U.N. denounced an armed attack on Catete that resulted in the deaths of a humanitarian worker and three other civilians. (Human Rights Watch, World Report, 2000)

Assaults against humanitarian assistance continued in 2001. In the middle of June 2001, the UN warned that humanitarian operation in Angola were at risk. The UN food agency cancelled humanitarian flights to Angola after its aircraft was attacked by UNITA missiles in early June. The spokesman for UNITA, Joffre Justino, initially maintained that " the planes were legitimate targets," but later said it " was not deliberately targeting humanitarian flights". Despite a lack of safety guarantees for its planes, the UN has since resumed its flights in order to avoid a humanitarian catastrophe. The UN food agency helps about one million people in Angola whose lives would be endangered without food aid. (BBC, June 21, 2001)

Violation of the Freedom of the Press

Violation of the freedom of the press has been characteristic in Angola. The government passed a law in August 1999 that advocates harsh punishment for defamation. In consequence the government has repeatedly threatened independent journalists criticizing the MPLA. Isaias Soares, correspondent of Voice of America (VoA) and the independent Catholic radio station ‘Radio Ecclesia’ in the northern Malange province was attacked by two men on February 22 at his home. Soares was not injured in the assault. Soares has been harassed on several occasions for his critical writings. In 1999, he was arrested after he denounced the security forces’ practices. In 2000, local authorities in Malange forbade the journalist access to official buildings. (IRIN, February 28, 2001)

The latest reported incident occurred on July 14, when Rafael Marques was arrested by police in Luanda while visiting people who had been forcibly removed from their homes. Marques has argued that media freedom has deteriorated, citing examples of government pressure on the Catholic radio station ‘Radio Ecclesia’ and interrogations of journalists who denounce the government. (CNN, July 14, 2001)

Not Genocidal in Nature

This preliminary research focused on possible precursors of genocide present in the region due to the civil war in Angola. The Genocide Prevention Center has defined four standards that must be met for human rights abuses and violence to constitute genocide:

The Center recognizes the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide definition of genocide, Article 2(a)(c)
The GPC must determine that the occurrence of massacres of unarmed civilian groups is habitual
The Center must determine that the crimes are intentional
Numerous and repeated acts of murder of a UN-recognized group must be the primary characteristic of the abuse

In concert with the first criteria, the Genocide Prevention Center acknowledges the 1948 UN Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide as key to identifying genocide. The UN Convention Article II classifies genocide as intentional actions aimed at destroying "in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group."

The civil war in Angola is a struggle for control and power between the government MPLA and the UNITA. Although both parties are supported by different ethnic groups (the MPLA by Africans and mixed race mesticos and the UNITA by the peasants and ethnic Ovimbundo population), ethnicity has never been of significance in the war. Civilians have not been targeted due to their national, ethnical, racial or religious beliefs. Hence, the Angolan civil war does not meet this portion of the UN definition of genocide and does not meet the first standard.

According to Article 2 (e) of the 1948 UN Convention on Genocide, "Forcibly transferring children of the group to another group" is a genocidal act. This is taking place in Angola, as we have mentioned in the section above entitled "Forcible Recruitments of Adults and Children". Although the forced transfer of children does meet a portion of Article 2 from the UN Convention, the Genocide Prevention Center does not utilize this as a criteria for genocide as it does not share the characteristic of murder.

In order to meet the second standard for genocide, the killings in Angola must be shown to be habitual. In looking at the recent violence within the country, it is possible to make a case that the killing of civilians is in fact habitual, as there have been numerous cases in which civilians have lost their lives in the conflict. Examples include 16 killed in Calomboloca on March 16, 2001; 20 killed in Cacuso on May 15, 2001; 22 killed in Catala on July 11, 2001; and 70 killed in Chinguvu on July 17, 2001. However, a distinction must be made between the specific targeting of civilians and incidental civilian wartime casualties. In the case of incidental casualties, civilian deaths result primarily as an effect of the overall warfare and not due to the specific targeting and exterminating of the population. It is clear that in the case of Angola, the civilian victims are incidental casualties and not the primary targets of the violence. These killings do constitute war crimes, however, they are not genocidal in nature. Therefore, the violence and killing in Angola do not meet the second standard for genocide.

The third standard involves the intent behind the killings. The Genocide Prevention Center distinguishes between massive human rights abuses that have an aspect of manslaughter versus those that have an aspect of murder. In a case of murder, the action is considered to be intentional while in the case of manslaughter, the killing of civilians is a bi-product of warfare and is not the intended goal. Directly related to the above analysis of the second standard, the case of Angola does not involve the intentional targeting and extermination of the civilian population. Massacres are primarily incidental civilian wartime casualties, and therefore are more closely associated with manslaughter then they are with murder. Because there is no strong indication that the killing of civilians in Angola is intentional, it therefore does not meet the third standard for genocide.

According to the fourth criteria the primary characteristic of the human rights violations must be the killing of civilians. Again, this is not the case in Angola. Angola has been suffering from two decades of civil war in which large numbers of civilians have been killed. However, the killing of civilians is not the primary characteristic of the violence. The primary characteristic of the conflict is warfare, with famine and incidental wartime casualties existing as secondary characteristics. The case of Angola is one of a civil war in which the two main sides are fighting over territory, not targeting the population for extermination. Because the killing of civilians is not the primary characteristic of the war in Angola, this case does not meet the fourth standard for genocide.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the Genocide Prevention Center has determined that the pattern of violence in Angola does not meet the four standards for genocide. Nevertheless, based on reports published in 2001, the UNITA is responsible for committing both war crimes and crimes against humanity. It is difficult to make a judgment on the actions of the government, as there is a lack of evidence on the nature of the violence it has committed. It is possible that the strict control the government has over the media has been responsible for this lack of information. However, as cited earlier in the report, Amnesty International has stated that both the UNITA and government MPLA have been responsible for actions against civilians.

In concert with the reported casualties, we can only conclude that it appears the atrocities committed against civilians this year have been inflicted by the UNITA. Based on the evidence, the UNITA has violated Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.

According to Article 3, "the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place…: (a) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; (b) Taking of hostages; (www.unhchr.ch)

According to Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International and numerous news articles cited in this report, the UNITA is responsible for committing murder, mutilation, and kidnapping, hence violating Article 3 a and b.

The UNITA has violated Part Two, Article 4, 3c of Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 which states " children who have not attained the age of fifteen years shall neither be recruited in the armed forces or groups nor allowed to take part in hostilities." (www.unhchr.ch)

Further, the UNITA is responsible for violating Part Four, Article 13, 2 of Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949 which says: " The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians, shall not be the object of attack. Acts or threats of violence the primary purpose of which is to spread terror among the civilian population are prohibited." (www.unhcr.ch)

Although the Genocide Prevention Center concludes that the Angolan civil war does not constitute genocide, the civil war does constitute the above mentioned war crimes. Therefore, the abuses in Angola require further attention and action to bring about an end to the violence.

Appendix

History of the Civil War

1961-1975 War of Independence, Angolans wage guerilla war for independence
1975 Portugal grants independence
1975-1991 War of the Bush, Civil war among two rival groups
1976 Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (MPLA) organizes Marxist state
1992-1994 War of the Cities
1994 Government and UNITA sign peace treaty (Lusaka Protocol)
1998 Peace Protocol fails, civil war restarts

Works Cited

Reports

Amnesty International Report 2001: Angola
http://www.web.amnesty.org/web/ar2001.nsf/webafrcountries/ANGOLA?OpenDocument

Annan, Kofi: S/1998/1110 REPORT to the Security Council on the United Nations
Mission on Angola (MONUA)
http://www.angola.org/referenc/reports/unindex.html

Angola: A Brief Outline
http://www.oneworld.org/globalwitness/reports/Angola/

Angola Peace Monitor: Issue No.10, Vol.VII, 4 July 2001
http://www.anc.org.za/angola/apm0710.html

Angola Peace Monitor: Issue No.9, Vol.VII, 7 June 2001
http://www.anc.org.za/angola/apm0709.html

CIA The World Fact Book: Angola
http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ao.html

GBGM: Angola: General Information and History
http://gbgm-umc.org/africa/angola/angolgen.html

Human Rights Watch World Report 2000: Angola
http://www.hrw.org/wr2k/Africa.htm#P288_98792

Library of Congress: Angola, a country study
http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/aotoc.html

Prendergast, John: Angola’s Deadly War:Dealing with Savimbi’sHell on Earth
http://www.usip.org/oc/sr/sr991012/sr991012.html

UNCHR Country Profile, Angola
http://www.unhcr.ch/world/afri/angola.htm

U.S. Agency for International Development, Bureau for Humanitarian Response
(BHR) Office of U.S. Foreign Disaster Assistance (OFDA)
Angola: Complex Emergency , Situation Report #2, Fiscal Year(FY) 2001 July 09
http://www.usaid.gov/hum_response/ofda/angola_sr2_fy01.html

US Committee for Refugees: Worldwide Refugee Information, Country Report:
Angola, http://www.refugees.org/world/countryrpt/africa/angola.htm

Online News Resources

BBC:"Angola aid flights resume." June 21, 2001.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_1400000/1400658.stm

CNN:"Ongoing war a grim reality in Angola." April 6, 2001.
http://www.cnn.com/2001/WORLD/africa/04/06/inside.africa/index.html

Guardian and Mail:"Angola." May 9, 2001
www.mg.co.za/mg/za/archive/2001may/09mayam-news.htm

IRIN:"ANGOLA: Journalist assaulted in Malange province." February 28, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010228b.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA: Town’s population ‘missing’." March 7, 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010307.phtml

IRIN: "ANGOLA: UNITA attack on Benguela." March 14, 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010314a.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA: Angolan rebels attack strategic town." March 16 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010316a.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA-ZAMBIA: More Angolan refugees arrive in Zambia." April 19, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010419.phtml

IRIN:" ANGOLA: Angolan children recount raid." May 11, 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010511c.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA: UNITA attacks military base near Namibian border." May 11, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010511b.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA: 20 dead in ambush by Angolan rebels." May 15, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010515.phtml

IRIN: "ANGOLA: Landmine kills 22. " June, 11, 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010611b.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA: Government, UNITA claim victories as president calls for tougher action." June 19, 2001. http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010619a.phtml

IRIN:"ANGOLA: Twelve killed in rebel attack." June 29, 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010629.phtml

IRIN: "ANGOLA: Attack on diamond town." July 17, 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN/sa/countrystories/angola/20010717.phtml

Pearce, Justin: "UNITA attack east of Luanda." May 22, 2001.BBC
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_1345000/1345364.stm

Pearce, Justin: "Angola rebels attack Uige." June 26, 2001. BBC
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_1409000/1409211.stm

Shukman, David:"Deadly landmine threat stalks Angola." May 3, 2001. BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/africa/newsid_735000/735287.stm

Shukman, David: "Victims of Angola’s landmines." May 6, 2001.BBC
http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/world/from_our_own_correspondent/newsi d_737000/737601.stm

UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs: Humanitarian situation in
Angola: Reporting period 09 – 15 Jul 2001, July 25 2001.
http://www.reliefweb.int/ocha_ol/

Law articles

Article 3 Common to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and Protocol
Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949.
http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/94.htm


 

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